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PUBLIC FINANCE IN INDIA

indian finance

India is a quasi-federal run Country. India has a Central government, state governments and other local bodies. India is democratic as the respective governments are elected by the people for the people. Public finance is also known by the name fiscal management. Public finance has two components. It involves the expenditure and revenue of the government. Expenditure relates to government spending. Revenue refers to the profit or the receipts received by the government.

Budget.

A budget is the basic financial layout of any Country. It contains statements of the physical proceedings of the Government. A budget contains records of the proposed expenditure and anticipated revenue. A budget has the role of redistributive activities and stabilizing activities.  A budget reallocates resources efficiently and manages public enterprises.

Components of The budget.

As mentioned earlier, the budget consists of the receipts and all the expenditure of the Government.

  1. Revenue receipts: Revenue receipts are divided into tax revenue and non-tax revenue receipts. Revenue receipts consist of the taxes and duties that are levied by the Central Government. There are two types of taxes. Direct taxes and indirect taxes. Direct taxes are paid directly by the consumers on land and income. Other examples of direct taxes include Income tax, Interest tax, wealth tax and corporation tax. Indirect taxes affect the land and income of the consumers based on their consumption expenditures. Customs duties, excise duties, sales tax, all come under the indirect tax. Nin tax revenue consists of interest receipts, dividends and profit and union excise duties.
  2. Capital receipts: The loans raised by the government by the public is referred to as market loans. Loans can also be raised by the government from the RBI or any other parties through the sale of treasury bills. In short, capital receipts refer to the money raised by loans.

Overall receipts can be found by adding revenue receipts and capital receipts. The government proposes various expenditure plans on revenue account and capital account.

Public finance

Balanced, Surplus and Deficit budget.

Surplus budget: When the government receipts exceed the government expenditure, then it is called a surplus budget. A surplus budget has a contractionary effect on the economy. Here, the economic activity falls, leading to a fall in investment, income and employment. This ultimately results in the fall of consumption and savings. Thus, deficit budget = Total receipts – total expenditure.

Balanced budget: A balanced budget is when the government receipts equal the government expenditure.

Deficit budget: A deficit budget occurs when the government expenditure exceeds the government spending. This leads to an expansionary effect on the economy. The economic activities rise resulting in the increase in income, employment and investment. There is a rise in the consumer consumption and savings. Deficit budget = Revenue expenditure – revenue receipts.

 

 

TYPES OF LOAN AND CREDIT SYSTEM

Credit report

There are various types of consumer credit systems and loans in the US. They come with varied terms which can either be simple, promissory ones within family or more complex ones like student loans or mortgage. Banks, credit unions and others lend money for significant but necessary items like cars or homes. Other loans, like small business loans are available to select group of people only.

Types of credit: –

The two essential classifications of purchaser credit are open-end and close end credit. Open-end credit, also called revolving credit, can be utilized more than once for buys that will be paid back month to month, however paying everything due consistently isn’t required. The most widely recognized type of spinning credit will be credit cards, however home value loans and home value credit extensions (HELOC) likewise fall in this classification.

Credit cards are utilized for every day costs, for example, food, clothing, transportation and little home repairs. Interest charges are connected when the month to month adjust isn’t forked over the required funds. The interest rates on credit cards is normally 15 percent, however can be as low as zero percent (temporary, introductory offers) and as high as 30 percent or additionally, contingent upon the shopper’s instalment history and credit score.

close end credit is utilized to support a particular reason for a particular time frame. They additionally are called instalment loans since purchasers are required to take after a normal instalment plan (typically month to month) that incorporates interest charges, until the point that the central is paid off.

Credit system

Type of loans: –

Student loans- They are offered to college students and their families to help cover the cost of higher education. There are two main types: federal student loans and private student loans. Federally funded loans are better, as they typically come with lower interest rates and more borrower-friendly repayment terms.

Mortgages- Mortgages are loans distributed by banks to allow consumers to buy homes they can’t pay for upfront. A mortgage is tied to your home, meaning you risk foreclosure if you fall behind on payments. Mortgages have among the lowest interest rates of all loans.

Auto Loans- Like mortgages, auto loans are tied to your property. They can help you afford a vehicle, but you risk losing the car if you miss payments. This type of loan may be distributed by a bank or by the car dealership directly but you should understand that while loans from the dealership may be more convenient, they often carry higher interest rates and ultimately cost more overall.

Personal Loans- Personal loans can be used for any personal expenses and don’t have a designated purpose. This makes them an attractive option for people with outstanding debts, such as credit card debt, who want to reduce their interest rates by transferring balances. Like other loans, personal loan terms depend on your credit history.

Loans for veterans- The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has lending programs available to veterans and their families. With a VA-backed home loan, money does not come directly from the administration. Instead, the VA acts as a co-signer and effectively vouches for you, helping you earn higher loan amounts with lower interest rates.

There are many other types of loans however these are the few important ones which more often required than the other loans.

 

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